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PSY 1411 Introduction to Psychology

Course Description

This course provides overviews psychological processes, including both areas in which psychology is a natural science (physiological psychology, sensation and perception, basic learning and cognition) and a social science (motivation, human development, personality, social interaction, psychopathology, and psychotherapy).

Course Objectives

Upon completion of this course, students should be able to

  • Demonstrate an appreciation for the importance of psychology in understanding everyday life
  • Outline a brief history of psychology and identify current issues and trends
  • Explain how psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
  • Compare and contrast the different approaches to the explanation of psychological phenomena (e.g., psychobiological, psychodynamic, behavioral, humanistic, social and cognitive), and explain the eclectic approach to research
  • Differentiate between the roles and areas of study of psychologists as compared to psychiatrists, social workers, etc.
    • Describe the range of career options available to psychology majors
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the various methods of planning, conducting and evaluating psychological research
    • Identify the strengths and weaknesses of each
  • Describe the essential role of the brain and other parts of the nervous system in the integration of behavior and mental processes
    • Describe how neurons function to transmit messages
  • Clarify and explain the role of the endocrine system in determining behavioral, mental and emotional responses
  • Distinguish between sensation and perception
    • Describe the basic sensory systems
    • Explain selected perceptual principles
  • Identify and explain the effects of the major categories of psychoactive substances on thinking, emotions and behaviors
  • Compare and contrast altered states including sleep and hypnotic states
  • Identify and describe the three major learning approaches: classical, operant and cognitive behavioral (social) and be able to explain them in relation to their practical applications
  • Describe the concept of memory including theories of how it is stored and retrieved and why forgetting occurs
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the concept and measurement of intelligence
    • Explain the basic theories of emotion and describe the complexities of motivation
  • Enumerate and clarify the positive and negative aspects of stress and be able to identify and describe some stress management techniques
  • Identify and clarify the various theories of biopsychosocial development across the human life span
    • Explain the important issues in the nature-nurture controversy
  • Distinguish between the major personality theories and describe techniques of assessment
  • Define and explain the major psychopathologies and describe selected treatment approaches
  • Demonstrate an understanding of humans as social beings by explaining a sampling of social psychological theories and research
  • Have functional knowledge of the databases available for research in psychology
  • Have sufficient exposure to the APA Website, such that they can broaden their knowledge of resources available in the field

Week 1

Lecture: The Science of Psychology


  • Define psychology
  • Define empiricism
  • Discuss the history of psychology. Compare the goals and beliefs of structuralism, Gestalt psychology, psychoanalysis, functionalism, and behaviorism
    • Describe introspection and the functional analysis of behavior
  • Compare and contrast the basic assumptions of the six approaches to psychology: biological, evolutionary, psychodynamic, behavioral, cognitive, and humanistic
    • Define eclectic
  • Name the psychological subfields
    • Give examples of the questions and issues associated with each subfield
  • Name the four main goals of scientific research in psychology
  • Explain how the reliability and validity of evidence are checked
  • Describe the evolution of a theory
  • Describe the three basic research methods used to describe and predict a phenomenon and give examples of each
    • Explain the advantages and disadvantages of each method
  • Describe the experimental research method and give an example of it
    • Define variables
  • Explain why an experiment allows investigation of causation
  • Define and explain the role of independent and dependent variables and of experimental and control groups in an experiment
  • Define hypothesis and operational definition
  • Define confounding variables
    • Discuss the problems presented by confounding variables in the interpretation of experimental results
    • Define random variables, placebo effect, and experimental bias
  • Define random assignment and double-blind design
    • Explain the purpose of each in an experiment
  • Define quasi-experiments
    • Explain why they are used as experimental designs
  • Define sampling, random sampling and biased sample
    • Discuss the importance of sampling in data collection
  • Define correlation
    • Describe how the absolute value and sign of a correlation coefficient are interpreted
  • Describe the ethical guidelines that psychologists must follow
Lecture: Biology and Behavior


  • Define biological psychology
  • Describe the nervous system
    • List the three main components of information processing that the nervous system performs
  • Compare and contrast neurons and glial cells with other body cells
  • Name and describe the features of neurons that allow them to communicate with one another
  • Define and describe action potentials
    • Define myelin and discuss its effects
  • Define neurotransmitter and synapse and describe their roles in nervous system activity
  • Describe the role of receptors in the communication process between neurons
    • Explain the role of postsynaptic potentials in the creation of an action potential in the postsynaptic cell
  • Define neurotransmitter systems
    • Name the seven major neurotransmitters
    • Discuss the behaviors and mental processes associated with each
  • Name and describe the two major divisions of the nervous system
  • Name the two components of the peripheral nervous system and describe their functions
  • Name the two components of the autonomic nervous system and describe their functions
  • Describe the spinal cord and its functions
    • Define reflex
  • Describe the methods used by scientists in their study of the brain
  • Name and describe the three major subdivisions of the brain and describe their functions
    • Define brainstem
  • Name and define the structures in the hindbrain
    • Describe their functions
  • Name and define the structures in the midbrain
    • Describe their functions
  • Name and define the structures in the forebrain
    • Describe their functions
  • Define cerebral cortex
    • Name the four lobes that make up the cortex and state their locations
  • Name three functional divisions of the cortex and describe their functions
  • Describe split brain studies and explain the function of the corpus callosum
  • Describe the lateralization of the cerebral hemispheres
  • Define synaptic plasticity
    • Explain why the brain has difficulty repairing itself after it has been damaged
    • Describe the methods used to help people recover from brain damage today
  • Define the fight-or-flight syndrome

Week 2

Lecture: Sensation and Perception


  • Define sense, sensation, and perception
    • Explain the difference between sensation and perception
  • Define accessory structure, transduction, receptor, and coding
    • Define adaptation and give an example
  • Define psychophysics and absolute threshold
    • Explain the influence of internal noise and response criterion on performance
  • Define signal-detection theory
    • Explain how sensitivity and response criterion affect signal detection
  • Describe Weber’s Law
    • Define just-noticeable difference (JND)
  • Define wavelength, frequency, and amplitude
    • Define visible light and explain how light intensity and light wavelength are related to what you sense
  • Define and describe the accessory structures of the eye, including the cornea, pupil, iris, and lens
    • Define retina and explain how accommodation affects the image on the retina
  • Define photoreceptors, rods, and cones
    • Describe how these structures are involved in transduction and dark adaptation
    • Define fovea and explain why visual acuity is greatest in the fovea
  • Describe the path that visual information follows on its way to the brain, including the roles of the optic nerve, optic chiasm, primary visual cortex, and feature detectors
    • Explain what creates the blind spot
  • Define hue, saturation, and brightness
  • Describe the trichromatic and opponent-process theories of color vision
    • Discuss the phenomena each explains
    • Describe the physical problem that causes colorblindness
  • Define sound
    • Describe the psychological characteristics of sound, including loudness, pitch, and timbre
    • Discuss the relationship among pitch, frequency, and wavelength as well as that between amplitude and loudness
  • Describe how information is relayed to the primary auditory cortex
    • Explain how the cortex processes the messages received from the auditory nerve
    • Describe the process of coding auditory information
    • Discuss the relationship between place theory and volley theory
  • Describe the sense of smell (olfaction) and sense of taste (gustation)
    • Describe the relationship among taste, smell, and flavor
  • Define somatic sense
    • Describe the transduction process in the skin senses, including touch, pain, and temperature
  • Describe the gate-control theory of pain sensation
    • Define analgesia
    • Name the body’s natural analgesics
  • Define proprioceptive and kinesthesia
    • Name the sources of kinesthetic information
    • Describe the types of information that the vestibular sense provides
    • Discuss the role of the vestibular sacs, otoliths, and semicircular canals in the sensation of vestibular information
  • Describe the two basic principles of perceptual organization: figure-ground and grouping
    • Define and give examples of proximity, similarity, continuity, closure, texture, simplicity, common fate, common region, and synchrony
  • Define and describe depth perception
    • Describe the stimulus cues that influence depth perception, including relative size, height in the visual field, interposition, linear perspective, reduced clarity, light and shadow, and textural gradient
  • Define perceptual constancy
    • Give examples of size, shape, and brightness constancy
  • Define attention
    • Give examples of overt and covert orienting
    • Explain parallel processing
    • Describe factors that affect the ability to direct or divide attention
    • Describe the research using reaction time and PETs
Lecture: Consciousness


  • Define consciousness
  • Define state of consciousness
    • Distinguish among the various levels of conscious activity: conscious, nonconscious, preconscious, and unconscious or subconscious
      • Give example for each
  • Define altered state of consciousness
  • Compare and contrast slow-wave and REM sleep
    • Be sure to discuss how the two types of sleep differ in terms of physiological arousal and brain activity
  • Describe a night’s sleep
    • Discuss the changes in sleep that occur over the course of the life span
  • Discuss the symptoms of insomnia, narcolepsy, sleep apnea, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), sleepwalking, nightmares, night terrors, and REM behavior disorder; Specify the sleep stages in which sleepwalking, nightmares, night terrors, and REM behavior disorder occur
  • Define circadian rhythm and discuss the brain’s role in regulating sleep patterns; define jet lag and explain how to reduce fatigue and disorientation that results from shifts in sleep patterns
  • Define dreams and lucid dreaming
  • Discuss the various theories that explain why people dream, including wish fulfillment and activation-synthesis theory
  • Define hypothesis and describe the process of becoming hypnotized
Lecture: Consciousness and Drugs


  • Define psychoactive drugs and psychopharmacology. Explain the function of the blood-brain barrier and discuss how agonist, antagonist, and other types of drugs work
  • Define substance abuse. Distinguish between psychological dependence and physical dependence, or addiction. Define withdrawal syndrome and tolerance

Week 3

Lecture: Learning: Classical and Operant Conditioning


  • Define learning
  • Define classical conditioning, unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, conditioned stimulus, and conditioned response
    • Give an example that illustrates the process of classical conditioning, and label the parts of your example using terms
  • Describe the processes of extinction, reconditioning, and spontaneous recovery
    • Give an example of each
    • Explain Figure 5.3 in your text
  • Define and give examples of stimulus generalization and stimulus discrimination
    • Describe the adaptive balance between these two phenomena
  • Discuss how attention influences the process of classical conditioning
    • Define and give an example of second-order conditioning
  • Explain and give examples of biopreparedness; explain why conditioned taste aversion is a special case of classical conditioning
  • Discuss the role of classical conditioning in the development and treatment of phobias and in the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease
  • Define habituation and give an example; describe opponent-process theory and explain how it applies to drug addiction
  • Define the law of effect
  • Describe instrumental or operant conditioning and explain how it differs from classical conditioning
  • Define operants and reinforcers
  • Define positive reinforcers and negative reinforcers and give examples for each
  • Define escape conditioning and avoidance conditioning
    • Give an example of each that highlights their similarities and differences
  • Define discriminative stimuli
    • Explain and give an example of stimulus control
    • Explain how stimulus discrimination and stimulus generalization can work together
  • Define shaping
    • Explain when it is used in operant conditioning
  • Discuss the differences between primary and secondary reinforcers
  • Explain the difference between continuous and partial reinforcement schedules; compare and contrast fixed-ratio, variable-ratio, fixed-interval, and variable-interval schedules
    • Be sure to describe how these schedules affect response patterns and discuss the partial reinforcement extinction effect
  • Define punishment and describe its role in operant conditioning
    • Explain why punishment differs from negative reinforcement
    • Discuss the disadvantages of and guidelines for using punishment
Lecture: Cognitive and Observational Learning


  • Define learned helplessness and give an example of it; describe the experiments used to study learned helplessness and the results
  • Define and give an example of latent learning and cognitive map
  • Define and discuss how insight differs from classical and operant conditioning
  • Define observational learning and vicarious conditioning
    • Discuss their similarities and differences
Lecture: Memory


  • Define encoding, storage, and retrieval, and discuss the role of each in our ability to remember; define and give examples of acoustic, visual, and semantic codes; explain the difference between recall and recognition
  • Define and give examples of episodic, semantic, and procedural memories
  • Define and give examples of explicit and implicit memories
  • Define the levels-of-processing model of memory; define maintenance and elaborative rehearsal and explain how these concepts relate to the levels-of-processing model
  • Define the parallel distribution processing (PDP) model of memory; describe the role of association networks in drawing inferences and making generalizations
  • Define the information-processing model of memory
    • Name the three stages of processing
  • Define sensory memory and sensory registers
    • Discuss the capacity and duration of sensory memory
    • Explain the importance of selective attention in information processing
  • Define short-term memory (STM) and explain why it is sometimes referred to as the working memory
    • Describe short-term memory encoding
  • Define immediate memory span and chunks
    • Discuss the role of long-term memory in the chunking process
  • Define the Brown-Peterson procedure
    • Describe the importance of rehearsal in maintaining information in short-term memory
  • Define long-term memory (LTM) and discuss the relationship between semantic encoding and long-term memory
    • Describe the storage capacity of LTM
    • Discuss the studies illustrating the distortion of long-term memories
  • Define retrieval cues and explain why their use can increase memory efficiency
    • Define the encoding specificity principle
  • Define context-dependent and state-dependent memories and give examples of each
    • Explain the mood congruency effect
  • Describe the semantic network theory of memory and explain the principle of spreading activation
  • Define the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon and explain how it relates to the semantic network theory of memory
  • Compare and contrast the decay and interference theories of forgetting
    • Define retroactive interference and proactive interference and give an example of each
  • Discuss the controversy surrounding repressed memories; Describe motivated forgetting and false memories
  • Define mnemonics and explain why they improve memory
    • Give an example of the method of loci

Week 4

Lecture: Thought, Language, and Intelligence: Part I


  • Define information-processing system and thinking
    • Explain the sequence of events that occurs in the circle of thought in terms of an information-processing model
  • Define cognitive maps and discuss their formation and use
    • Describe the manipulation of mental images
  • Define concepts, formal, and natural concepts, and prototype
    • Give examples of each
  • Define schema, scripts, propositions, and mental models and describe their role in the thinking process
  • Define inductive or informal reasoning, and heuristics
    • Describe and give examples of the anchoring, representativeness, and availability heuristics
  • Define artificial intelligence
    • Discuss the cognitive and personality characteristics necessary for creative thinking
  • Define divergent and convergent thinking
Lecture: Thought, Language, and Intelligence: Part II


  • Explain how our decision-making abilities are influenced by biases and flaws in our perceptions of utilities, losses, and probabilities
    • Be sure to discuss loss aversion and the gambler’s fallacy
  • List the components of language
    • Define grammar
  • Describe language development in children
    • Define babblings and telegraphic speech
  • Define intelligence
  • Discuss the history of intelligence test construction
    • Explain the scoring methods used in the Binet and Stanford-Binet intelligence tests
  • Describe Wechsler’s intelligence test
    • Explain why it is different from tests that were used previously
    • Define verbal and performance scales
  • Explain how intelligence quotients (IQ scores) are calculated today
  • Define test
    • Describe the advantages of tests over other evaluation methods
    • Define and describe the usefulness of norms
  • Define reliability and validity
    • Describe how correlation coefficients are used to evaluate the reliability and validity of tests
  • Discuss the research evaluating the reliability and validity of IQ tests

Week 5

Lecture: Motivation


  • Define motivation
    • Discuss the types of behaviors that motivation may help to explain
  • Define instinct
    • Discuss how instinct theory explains behavior
    • Explain the problems with this theory of motivation
  • Define homeostasis, need, drive, and drive reduction theory.
    • Define primary and secondary drives and discuss their role in motivation
    • Describe the kinds of behavior that drive reduction theory can and cannot explain
  • Define arousal
    • Discuss the relationship between arousal level and performance
    • Describe the arousal theory of motivation
  • Define hunger and satiety
    • Describe the role of stomach cues and the role of the brain in regulating hunger and eating
    • Be sure to list the nutrients and hormones that the brain monitors, and explain how the ventromedial nucleus and lateral hypothalamus might interact to maintain a set point
  • Define obesity, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa
    • Describe the behaviors and health problems associated with each of these eating disorders
    • Discuss the potential causes of each disorder, and describe how each is treated
  • Describe the University of Chicago study of sexual behavior and discuss its findings
    • Describe the sexual response cycle
    • Name the male and female sex hormones and explain their organizing and activating effects
  • Discuss the social and cultural influences on sexual motivation
    • Define heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual orientation
    • Describe the evidence of the extent to which genes may determine sexual orientation
    • Define sexual dysfunction and give examples
  • Define need achievement
    • Describe the characteristics of people with strong achievement motivation and the factors that can affect its development
  • Describe Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
    • Give examples of each kind of need
  • Describe the four types of motivational conflicts, and explain the relationship between motivation and stress
Lecture: Emotion


  • Describe the defining characteristics of the subjective experiences of emotion
    • Give examples of the objective aspects of emotion
  • Describe the role of the brain in emotion and facial expressions; describe how the parasympathetic and sympathetic systems are involved in emotional experience, including the fight-or-flight syndrome
  • Describe James’ theory of emotion
    • Use the theory to explain an emotional experience
  • Discuss the research that evaluates James’s theory
    • Describe the facial feedback hypothesis.
    • Describe the various types of lie-detection tests and discuss the assumptions upon which they are based
  • Describe Schachter’s modification of James’ theory of emotion
    • Define attribution and give an example
  • Discuss the research that evaluates Schachter’s theory
    • Define transferred excitation and give an example of its effects
  • Describe Cannon’s theory of emotion
    • Discuss the updates to Cannon’s theory
  • Compare and contrast James’, Schachter’s, and Cannon’s theories of emotion
  • Discuss the role of facial movements in expressing human emotion; describe Darwin’s theory of innate basic facial expressions
    • Discuss the research that supports this theory
Lecture: Human Development


  • Define developmental psychology
  • Define and give examples of teratogens; define critical period and name the stage associated with it
    • Describe the types of birth defects that can be caused by using teratogens, including the pattern of defects known as fetal alcohol syndrome
  • Describe Piaget’s theory of cognitive development
    • Define schemas, assimilation, and accommodation
  • Describe the development of mental abilities during the sensorimotor period
    • Define object permanence
  • Describe the changes in cognition that occurs during the preoperational period
    • Discuss the ability to use symbols during this period
  • Define conservation
    • Describe the changes in cognition that occurs during Piaget’s stage of concrete operations
  • Discuss the criticism of Piaget’s theory of cognition development, and discuss the information processing approach as an alternative to Piaget’s theory
  • Define temperament
    • Describe the different behaviors exhibited by easy, difficult, and slow-to-warm-up babies
  • Define attachment and discuss how this type of relationship is formed between caregiver and infant
    • Describe Harlow’s studies of motherless monkeys
  • Explain how the Strange Situation is used to study attachment
    • Describe how secure attachment patterns differ from avoidant, ambivalent, and disorganized attachment patterns
    • Discuss the question of whether day care damages the formation of a healthy mother-infant attachment
  • Compare and contrast the parenting styles of authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative parents
    • Describe the characteristics of children raised by each type of parent, and discuss the limitations of the research in this area
  • Define puberty, and discuss the physical and psychological changes and problems that occur during adolescence
    • Describe the relationship adolescents have with their parents and peers
  • Describe the development of both the personal and the ethnic identity
    • Define identity crisis
  • Describe the changes in cognition that occurs during the formal operational period
  • Describe the stages of moral reasoning suggested by Kohlberg
    • Define preconventional, conventional, and postconventional moral reasoning and give examples of statements that illustrate reasoning at each of these stages
    • Discuss the cultural and gender-related limitations of Kohlberg’s theory
  • Define generativity, midlife transition, and terminal drop

Week 6

Lecture: Health, Stress and Coping


  • Define health psychology. List the objectives of health psychologists
  • Define stress, stressors, and stress reactions
    • Give examples of stressors
    • Be sure to include a catastrophic event, a life change or strain, a chronic stressor, and a daily hassle
  • Describe the Social Readjustment Rating Scale and the Life Experience Survey
    • Explain how each is used to measure stress
  • Define general adaptation syndrome
    • Describe the alarm, resistance, and exhaustion stages of the model, and discuss the physiological changes that occur in each stage
    • Define disease of adaptation
    • Discuss the major criticisms of Selye’s model
  • Define burnout and posttraumatic stress disorder
    • Describe the symptoms of each and discuss the conditions that can lead to these disorders
  • Define psychoneuroimmunology
    • Describe the components of the immune system
    • Discuss the relationship between stress and immune system functioning
  • Describe the five stages in changing behavioral health risks
  • Describe cognition coping strategies
    • Define cognitive restructuring
  • Describe physical coping strategies
    • Explain the possible problems of using drugs to alter stress or stress responses
    • Explain how progressive relaxation training can help people cope
Lecture: Personality: Part I


  • Define personality
  • Describe the assumptions of Freud’s psychodynamic approach to personality
  • Define and describe the nature and function of the id, ego, and superego; define the pleasure principle and reality principle
  • Define defense mechanism
    • Explain the purpose and give examples of defense mechanisms
  • Name, define, and describe the psychosexual stages in Freud’s theory of personality development
  • Compare and contrast the Oedipus and Electra complexes
  • Describe the three basic assumptions of the trait approach to personality
  • Discuss Allport’s trait theory and Eysenck’s biological trait theory of personality
    • Define and describe the “big five” model
Lecture: Personality: Part II


  • Describe the basic assumptions of the social-cognitive approach to personality
  • Describe Rotter’s expectancy theory, Bandura’s reciprocal determinism and self-efficacy, and Mischel’s person variables
  • Describe the phenomenological approach to personality
  • Describe Roger’s self theory and Maslow’s humanistic psychology; define self-actualization, self-concept, and conditions of worth; explain the difference between a deficiency orientation and a growth orientation
  • Describe the three general methods of personality assessment; discuss the differences between objective and projective tests and give examples of each

Week 7

Lecture: Psychological Disorders: Part I


  • Define psychopathology; discuss the prevalence of mental disorders in the United States
  • Describe the three criteria for abnormality, and discuss the limitations of each; describe the practical approach and impaired functioning
  • Describe and give an example illustrating the diathesis-stress approach to mental disorder
  • Describe the contents of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV)
    • List the five axes of the DSM-IV used in diagnosis
  • Discuss the reliability and validity of diagnostic labels
    • Describe the problems associated with diagnosis
  • Define anxiety disorder
    • Specify which disorders are classified as anxiety disorders
  • Define phobia, and describe specific phobia, social phobias, and agoraphobia
  • Define and describe generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder
    • Explain the difference between obsessions and compulsions
  • Define somatoform disorder; describe conversion disorder, hypochondriasis, somatization disorder, and pain disorder
  • Define dissociative disorder
    • Compare and contrast dissociative fugue and dissociative amnesia
    • Describe dissociative identity disorder
  • Define mood disorders
    • Describe major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, bipolar disorder, mania, and cyclothymic disorder

Week 8

Lecture: Social Psychology


  • Define social psychology and social cognition
  • Compare and contrast self-esteem and self-concept
  • Discuss Festinger’s theory of social comparison
  • Describe the role of reference groups in the process of self evaluation, and give an example of downward social comparison
  • Define relative deprivation
  • Define social identity and discuss its influence on thought and behavior
  • Define self-fulfilling prophecies
  • Discuss the relationship between self-fulfilling prophecies and impressions
  • Define attribution
  • Discuss the importance of attributions and give examples of internal and external attributions
  • Define and give examples illustrating fundamental attribution error, ultimate attribution error, actor-observer bias, and self-serving bias
  • Define unrealistic optimism
  • Define attitude
  • Describe the cognitive, affective, and behavioral components of attitudes and give an example of each
    • Discuss the factors that influence whether attitude-consistent behavior will occur
  • Define and describe cognitive dissonance theory
  • Define and give examples of stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination
  • Describe the contact hypothesis
  • Describe the influence of the environment, similarity, and physical attractiveness on attraction
  • Define matching hypothesis
  • Define and give examples of social facilitation and social impairment
  • Describe the social factors that influence motivation and define social loafing
  • Compare and contrast conformity and compliance
  • Describe the roles of norms in conformity and compliance
  • Define obedience
    • Describe Milgram’s study and his findings on obedience
  • Define aggression
    • Describe the genetic and biological influences on aggression
  • Discuss the role of brain structures, hormones, and drugs in aggressive behavior
  • Describe the role of learning and cultural mechanisms in aggression
  • Define the frustration-aggression hypothesis
  • Describe the empathy-altruism and evolutionary theories of helping
  • Define cooperation, competition, and conflict
    • Give an example of a social dilemma

The course description, objectives and learning outcomes are subject to change without notice based on enhancements made to the course. November 2011